[1] Wyllie, John Cook, Daniel Boone's Adventures in Charlottesville in 1781: Some Incidents Connected with Tarleton's Raid, Magazine of Albemarle County History, Vol. 19, 1960-61, p. 6. The quote is from a visitor to Charlottesville, who had just been shown the room in which the legislature convened in 1781, in a letter printed in The Richmond Inquirer Nov. 22, 1822.

[2] Boatner III, U.S. Army Colonel Mark Mayo, Encyclopedia of the American Revolution, (New York, U.S.: Van Rees Press, 1966), Tarleton, B., pp. 1087-1089.

[3] Calmes, Holley, Banastre Tarleton: A Biography, in Oatmeal for the Foxhounds, Banastre Tarleton and the British Legion <>, viewed Sept 2004; Cheaney, Janie B., Banastre Tarleton, <> viewed Sept. 2004.

[4] Cheaney.

[5] The World Book Encyclopedia, <>, viewed Sept 2004.

[6] Cheaney; Boatner, Waxhaws, S.C., pp. 1173-1175.

[7] Tarleton, Banastre, A History of the Campaigns of 1780 and 1781, in the Southern Provinces of North America, (London: T. Cadel, 1787), p. 28.

[8] Boatner, Waxhaws, S.C., pp. 1173-1175; Dr. Robert Brownfield letter, describing the Buford Massacre, The Patriot Resource <>

[9] Ibid.; this recount is supported by Calmes.

[10] Tarleton, pp. 30-31, “…a report amongst the cavalry, that they had lost their commanding officer… stimulated the soldiers to a vindictive asperity not easily restrained.”; the 15 minute duration is from Boatner III, p.1173-1175; and Brownfield.

[11] Cheaney; The Patriot Resource.

[12] The Patriot (Columbia/Tristar Studios, 2000), directed by Roland Emmerich, starring Mel Gibson, Jason Isaacs, Heath Ledger, Rene Auberjonois, et al.

[13] The Patriot Resource <> viewed Sept 2004.

[14] Ibid; Maass, John R., To Disturb the Assembly: Tarleton’s Charlottesville Raid and the British Invasion of Virginia, 1781 (1999), p. 3, p. 8, (also published in Virginia Calvacade, Library of Virginia, Autumn 2000), re: terror associated with Tarleton’s name, referencing Conrad, Dennis M., Ed., The Papers of Nathanael Greene, Vol VIII (Chapel Hill: UNC Press, 1995), p. 315.

[15] McDowell, Bart, The Revolutionary War, (Washington, D.C.: The National Geographic Society, 1967), p. 142, 70 Tory prisoners from the Battle of Kettle Creek were sentenced to death, many pardoned, but 5 hanged; The Patriot Resource, “…area militia carried out raids on British and Loyalist interests.”

[16] Cheaney; Boatner, p. 676; “But as for this damned old fox, the devil himself could not catch him!” quote from Bass, Dr. Robert D., Swamp Fox, The Life and Campaigns of General Francis Marion(Sandlapper, 1982).

[17] Cheaney

[18] Boatner, Cowpens, S.C., pp. 291-301; The World Book Encyclopedia

[19] Boatner, Guilford Courthouse, N.C., pp. 460-471.

[20] Calmes.

[21] Maass, pp. 1-2.

[22] Calmes; Tarleton, pp. 295-296.

[23] Dabney, Virginius, Jouett Ourtrides Tarleton and Saves Jefferson from Capture, Scribner’s Magazine, Vol. 83 (June, 1928), pp. 690-691. Hayden, Karen, Remembering Jack Jouett, Virginia’s Paul Revere (Jouett Elementary School, Mineral, Virginia <>, School History) viewed Sept 2004; Maass, pp.6-7.

[24] Moore, John H., Albemarle: Jefferson’s County (Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1978), p. 64; Maass, p. 7.

[25] Peterson, Merrill D., editor, Thomas Jefferson Writings (Cambridge, England: Press Syndicate of the University of Cambridge, 1984), pp.775-777, Appeal to the Commander in Chief: To George Washington, Charlottesville, May 28th, 1781.

[26] McDowell, p. 178.

[27] Maass, p. 9; Tarleton, p. 296.

[28] Tarleton, p. 296.

[29] Dabney, pp. 690-692. Hayden; Maass, pp. 9-10. The Cuckoo Tavern is gone today, but the crossroads remain at the junction of US 33 and US 522; The Swan Tavern site, across from the Albemarle County Courthouse, is now occupied by the RedLand Club of Charlottesville, noted with a D.A.R. tablet.

[30] Tarleton, p. 296.

[31] Ibid.

[32] Benson, Guy Meriwether, The Mountain Tract of Nicholas Meriwether Part II—Dividing It Up, Meriwether Connections, Vol. XVIII, No. 4 Oct-Dec 1999, pp. 5-7, 11-12; Meriwether, Nelson Heath, p. 518.

[33] Virginia Center for Digital History, The Roots of Lewis and Clark, <>, Student Projects, Albemarle Adventures: Early Roots of Western Exploration, Explorers: Peter Jefferson & Thomas Walker, viewed Sept. 2004.

[34] Meriwether, pp. 518-519.

[35] Randall, Henry Stephens, The Life of Thomas Jefferson, Vol. 1, (Philadelphia, PA: J.B. Libbincott & Co., 1865), pp. 335-336.

[36] Maass, pp. 10-11.

[37] Tarleton, p. 296.

[38] Benson, Guy Meriwether, pp. 5-7, 11-12.

[39] - Biographical Directory of the American Congress, Walker, John, <> viewed Sept 2004.

[40] Brydon, Anne Page, Kinloch-Nelson Family Connection, part of A Small Diary of 1845: Anne Kinloch Meriwether and Her South Carolina Kin, The Magazine of Albemarle County History, (vols. 33 & 34, 1975 & 1976): article sources quote to Page, Dr. R.C.M., Genealogy of the Page Family in Virginia (2nd edition, 1893), p. 216.

[41] Maass, p. 11; Beavers, Toby, History of Charlottesville Virginia & Albemarle County Virginia,<> viewed Sept 2004; Rawlings, Mary, The Albemarle of Other Days (Charlottesville: Michie Company, 1925), p. 46.

[42] Mead, Edward Campbell, Historic Homes of the South-West Mountains Virginia, (Philadelphia, PA: J.B. Lippincott Company, 1899), pp. 159-165. Valentine, Douglas, Belvoir and Its Cemetery, June 2002, revised March 2003; Benson, Guy Meriwether, pp. 5-7, 11-12.

[43] McLaughlin, Camilla, Castle Hill: A Historic Heirloom in Virginia’s Keswick Hunt Country, Unique Homes Magazine, April/May 2004, <>

[44] Rives, William Cabell, preface to Walker, Thomas, Journal of an Exploration in the Spring of the Year 1750 (Boston, MS: Little, Brown, and Company, 1888); Rawlings, pp. 17-19, 46.

[45] Randall, p. 336; Hayden; Wyllie, p. 8. Lay, K. Edward, Charlottesville’s Architectural Legacy, Magazine of Albemarle County History, Vol. 46 (Charlottesville: May 1988), pp. 29-95, reprinted with Schwartz, Kenneth A., Charlottesville: A Brief Urban History (Institute for Advanced Technology in the Humanities, University of Virginia) <>, viewed January 2005. Charlottesville was created December 1762 as the central county seat of the redrawn Albemarle County, named for Queen Charlotte Sophia of Mecklenberg, the wife of King George III. The quote is from British Major Thomas Anbury, who was a prisoner of war held in Charlottesville 1779-1780.

[46] Boatner, Tarleton, B., p. 1087.

[47] Maass, pp. 3-6, quoting Idzerda, Stanley J., editor, Lafayette in the Age of the American Revolution: Selected Letters and Papers, 1776-1790, Vol. IV (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1981), pp. 137, 147, 160, 164-5; most troop numbers from Boatner, Virginia, pp. 1148-1155.

[48] Pawlett, Nathaniel Mason with Newlon, Howard H., The Route of the Three Notch’d Road: A Preliminary Report (Charlottesville, VA: Virginia Department of Highways and Transportation with the University of Virginia, January 1976, Revised September 2003), pp. 5, 11-13; Lay; Three Notched Road, later called the Three Chopped Road, operated from 1730 to 1930, when it was superseded by U.S. Route 250.

[49] Massie, Frank A., “New and Historical Map of Albemarle County”, (1907, on file at the Albemarle County Historical Society); Trout III, W.E., Rivanna Scenic River Atlas (Virginia Canals and Navigation Society, 2nd printing, January 1995), p. 9.

[50] Tarleton, pp. 296-297; Moore, p.65; Rawlings, pp. 47-48, 51; Woods, Edgar, Albemarle County in Virginia (Charlottesville, VA: The Michie Company, 1901), p. 45; Randall, p. 338.

[51] Rawlings, p. 8, 27-28, 49; Randall, p. 337; Dabney, p. 693. Maass, pp. 10-11. Fennel, Christopher, “An Account of James Monroe’s Land Holdings” (Electronic Text Center at the University of Virginia library, c.1998), <>, viewed Jan. 2005.

[52] Randall, pp. 336-339, the quote is his; Maass, p. 11; Hayden.

[53] Baskin, Marg, Oatmeal for the Foxhounds, Banastre Tarleton and the British Legion<>, Quotable Quotes, viewed Sept 2004; Dabney, p. 694.

[54] American Memory from the Library of Congress, <>Thomas Jefferson Papers, Timeline, 1774-1783, 1781, June 2, viewed Sept 2004; Beavers.

[55] The Thomas Jefferson Foundation, Monticello: The Home of Thomas Jefferson, <> viewed Sept 2004.

[56] Tarleton, p. 297.

[57] Maass, p. 13; Hayden; Rawlings, Mary, ed., Historic Guide to Old Charlottesville, (Charlottesville, VA: Mary Rawlings and Velora C. Thomson, 1958).

[58] Tarleton, p. 297; Moore, p. 64.

[59] Maass, p. 13; Wyllie, pp. 10-14; Tarleton, p. 297.

[60] Woods, pp. 206-207.

[61] Rawlings, p. 26. The Meriwether Society, Inc. Research Database, viewed January 2005.

[62] Wyllie, p. 9; Hayden.

[63] Tarleton, p. 297; Maass, p. 13.

[64] Rawlings, p. 15, is the basis for much of the early impression of The Farm. She states the site of Nicholas Meriwether II’s Old House as, “not known, but it was probably near the spring, and opposite the hill which bears the present dwelling.”; Virginia Center for Digital History, The Roots of Lewis and Clark, <>, Student Projects, Anchored in the East: The Homesteads and Families of Lewis and Clark in Virginia, Maps and Homes, The Farm, viewed January 2005; Benson, pp. 1-3, explores further the possible site of NMII’s home and the boundaries of the tracts. Griffith, William Ridgely, The Record of Nicholas Meriwether of Wales (St. Louis, MO: Nixon-Jones Printing Co., 1899), p. 69, 91 suggests NMII’s home was on the east side of the Rivanna; Goochland County Deeds and Wills, 1736-1742, p. 183, indicates NMII was a resident of Goochland County (where The Farm was—later Albemarle County) by 1738; Griffith, & Woods, pp. 270-271, indicate NMII & his son’s burials were east of the river.

[65] Bednar, Michael, Nicholas Lewis House—Charlottesville, Virginia, (School of Architecture, University of Virginia, February 2002); <>, viewed Jan. 2005; house description from Mutual Assurance Society of Virginia, 1796-1867 Policy Index, Special Collections, Alderman Library, University of Virginia, Albemarle Reel 4.

[66] Meriwether, p. 520; Bednar; Britton, Rick, Tarleton and Jouett, Albemarle Magazine, April-May 1995, p. 68; Rawlings, p. 16.

[67] Meriwether, p. 520.

[68] The Patriot (Columbia/Tristar Studios, 2000), directed by Roland Emmerich, starring Mel Gibson and Jason Isaacs. The Patriot Resource, <> discusses the scene and its realism. The “William Tavington” character is somewhat demonized by the story. The real Banastre Tarleton is not known to have committed such violence toward civilians, and the seeming cruelty to wounded soldiers outside of battle is unfounded. The Buford Massacre at the Battle of Waxhaws spread rumors he would take no prisoners. Tarleton did burn militia leader Thomas Sumpter’s plantation, though, after extricating his wife and child from the house, then providing a chair for them to safely watch.

[69] Bergh, The Writings of Thomas Jefferson, Volume 18, pp. 140-142; Meriwether, pp. 519-520. Rawlings, p. 16.

[70] Wyllie, p. 9

[71] Rawlings, p. 16; Woods, pp. 45-46; Bednar.

[72] Randall, Vol. 1, p.339.

[73] Rawlings, p. 16, 51; Woods, pp. 45-46; Bednar. Meriwether, p. 520.

[74] Bednar; Meriwether, p. 520.

[75] Charlottesville was ranked by Money Magazine (No. 1 best small city in the South), Kiplinger’s Personal Finance Magazine (Healthiest Place to Live), and Frommer’s Cities Ranked and Rated (No. 1 among American Cities), cited at the University of Virginia internet site, <>, viewed January 2005.

[76] Rawlings, pp. 44-45; Meriwether, p. 521.

[77] Hayden; Wyllie, p. 5; Boatner, Charlottesville Raid, pp. 216-218.

[78] Dabney, p. 694; Maass, pp. 17-18.

[79] Ibid, pp. 695-696; Hayden.

[80] Tarleton, p. 297-298; Wyllie, p. 17; Boatner, Charlottesville Raid, pp. 216-218.

[81] Boatner, Yorktown, pp. 1230-50; The World Book Encyclopedia. Although Yorktown was the War’s last major battle, fighting dragged on in some areas for 2 more years, until the Treaty of Paris was signed Sept. 3, 1783.

[82] Cheaney; Tarleton.

[83] Randall, Vol. 1, pp. 261-262.

[84] William Lewis’ tombstone (placed by the D.A.R.) states, “VA. MIL. CONT’L LINE REV. WAR”; TMSI Research Database, viewed January 2005 states William Lewis’ rank as Lieutenant; Valentine, Douglas, Cloverfields Cemetery, April 2002, Revised March 2003, p. 7 states the rank of Lieutenant and discusses other possibilities. Meriwether, pp. 580-581, and Heitman, Historical Register of Officers of the Continental Army, 1775-1783 also suggest possible ranks. Some confusion is attributed to Heitman’s Historical Register stating William Lewis was “a 1st Lieut. in the First Virginia Regiment, Oct. 1775, and advanced to Captain, 1776.” He later says William Lewis was “promoted to Major in 1779 of the tenth Virginia Regiment,” but that “Capt. Lewis was taken a prisoner at the Fall of Charleston, 1780,” as quoted in N.H. Meriwether’s The Meriwethers and Their Connections. There is an apparent contradiction in Heitman’s information because a demotion seems unlikely, and because the William Lewis who died in late 1779 could not have been at Charleston in 1780. Detractors have suggested that the “William Lewis” listed in Heitman might all denote an entirely different person or people. A mid 1776 letter, quoted in the U.S. House of Representatives, 27th Congress, 2nd Session, Report No. 775, dated May 25, 1842, from the Committee on Revolutionary Claims, mentions “Capt. Nicholas Lewis, Lt. William Lewis, and John Henderson, ensign.”

[85] Woods, p. 365; Virginia Center for Digital History, The Roots of Lewis and Clark, <>, Student Projects, Anchored in the East: The Homesteads and Families of Lewis and Clark in Virginia, Lewis, Family, viewed January 2005.

[86] Valentine, Douglas, Cloverfields Cemetery, p. 7; VCDH, Anchored in the East…, Maps and Homes, Cloverfields. TMSI Research Database, viewed January 2005, indicates William Lewis’ death date of Nov. 14, 1779 (two days after the accident at Secretary’s Ford).

[87] Mead, p. 138.

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